What are three examples of conditions controlled by homeostasis in the body?
Blood glucose concentration, body temperature and water levels
Blood glucose, body temperature and nervous responses
Body temperature, nervous and chemical responses
What is included in the central nervous system (CNS)?
Spinal cord and all neurones in the body
Brain and all neurones in the body
Brain and spinal cord
What is the generalised order during a nervous response?
Receptor → stimulus → coordinator → effector → response
Response → receptor → coordinator → effector → stimulus
Stimulus → receptor → coordinator → effector → response
Name the three different types of neurone
Sensory, generalised and motor neurones
Sensory, relay and motor neurones
Sensory, relay and effector neurones
What moves across the synapse?
Electrical impulse and a chemical messenger
What three parts are contained in the brain?
Alveoli, cerebellum and medulla
Cerebral cortex, gall bladder and medulla
Cerebral cortex, cerebellum and medulla
What part of the eye controls the amount of light entering it?
Why does the pupil get smaller?
It is a reflex response and stops damage to the retina
We have to think about this and our brain then creates the change
To allow as much light into the eye are possible.
How has the different areas of the brain been mapped? – Higher
Studying brain damage individuals, to see what has changed
Studying brain damage individuals, electrical stimulation and MRI scans
Only by MRI scans
How do the different muscles in our eyes help us focus light clearly? – Higher
The muscles alter the size of the iris
The muscles control the images sent to the optic nerve
The muscles tighten or loosen depending on if the lens need to be thickened or made thinner
Neurons contain ________, which can receive signals from other neurons.
- Golgi bodies
A(n) ________ neuron has one axon and one dendrite extending directly from the cell body.
Glia that provide myelin for neurons in the brain are called ________.
- Schwann cells
How are neurons similar to other cells? How are they unique?
Neurons contain organelles common to all cells, such as a nucleus and mitochondria. They are unique because they contain dendrites, which can receive signals from other neurons, and axons that can send these signals to other cells.
Multiple sclerosis causes demyelination of axons in the brain and spinal cord. Why is this problematic?
Myelin provides insulation for signals traveling along axons. Without myelin, signal transmission can slow down and degrade over time. This would slow down neuronal communication across the nervous system and affect all downstream functions.
All functions performed by the nervous system—from a simple motor reflex to more advanced functions like making a memory or a decision—require neurons to communicate with one another. While humans use words and body language to communicate, neurons use electrical and chemical signals. Just like a person in a committee, one neuron usually receives and synthesizes messages from multiple other neurons before “making the decision” to send the message on to other neurons.
For a neuron to fire an action potential, its membrane must reach ________.
- the threshold of excitation
- the refractory period
- inhibitory postsynaptic potential
After an action potential, the opening of additional voltage-gated ________ channels and the inactivation of sodium channels, cause the membrane to return to its resting membrane potential.
What is the term for protein channels that connect two neurons at an electrical synapse?
- synaptic vesicles
- voltage-gated ion channels
- gap junction protein
- sodium-potassium exchange pumps