Nervous Coordination in animals Assignment

Section one

What are three examples of conditions controlled by homeostasis in the body?

Blood glucose concentration, body temperature and water levels

Blood glucose, body temperature and nervous responses

Body temperature, nervous and chemical responses


What is included in the central nervous system (CNS)?

Spinal cord and all neurones in the body

Brain and all neurones in the body

Brain and spinal cord


What is the generalised order during a nervous response?

Receptor → stimulus → coordinator → effector → response

Response → receptor → coordinator → effector → stimulus

Stimulus → receptor → coordinator → effector → response


Name the three different types of neurone

Sensory, generalised and motor neurones

Sensory, relay and motor neurones

Sensory, relay and effector neurones


What moves across the synapse?

Chemical messenger

Electrical impulse

Electrical impulse and a chemical messenger


What three parts are contained in the brain?

Alveoli, cerebellum and medulla

Cerebral cortex, gall bladder and medulla

Cerebral cortex, cerebellum and medulla


What part of the eye controls the amount of light entering it?





Why does the pupil get smaller?

It is a reflex response and stops damage to the retina

We have to think about this and our brain then creates the change

To allow as much light into the eye are possible.


How has the different areas of the brain been mapped? – Higher

Studying brain damage individuals, to see what has changed

Studying brain damage individuals, electrical stimulation and MRI scans

Only by MRI scans


How do the different muscles in our eyes help us focus light clearly? – Higher

The muscles alter the size of the iris

The muscles control the images sent to the optic nerve

The muscles tighten or loosen depending on if the lens need to be thickened or made thinner       

Section Two

1) What is the main purpose of the nervous system?
  To fight off diseases
  To distribute energy throughout the body
  To be an instrument of communication between different parts of the body
  To break down food
  To regenerate cells

2) Nerve cells are called:


3) True or False: Some nerves are so long that they connect your spinal cord to your feet.


4) Sensory nerves send messages to the brain about what we:

  All of the Above

5) Which of the following controls the body functions you never think about, like breathing or heart rate?

  Central Nervous System
  Peripheral Nervous System
  Automatic Nervous System
  Somatic Nervous System
  None of the Above

6) The brain and the spinal cord make up which part of the nervous system?

  Central Nervous System
  Peripheral Nervous System
  Automatic Nervous System
  Somatic Nervous System
  None of the Above

7) Which of the following is the system of nerves that people have direct control over?

  Central Nervous System
  Peripheral Nervous System
  Automatic Nervous System
  Somatic Nervous System
  None of the Above

8) The synapse is specifically responsible for communication between:

  The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
  Individual nerve fibers
  The brain and the spinal chord
  Individual neurons
  Axons and muscles

9) What are dendrites?

  The electrical impulses between neurons
  The branches off of the main cell body of a neuron
  The connection between neurons and muscles
  The connection between nerve fibers
  The nerves inside of the brain

10) True or False: Sometimes our bodies can react faster than our brains.


Section Three

Neurons contain ________, which can receive signals from other neurons.

  1. axons
  2. mitochondria
  3. dendrites
  4. Golgi bodies


A(n) ________ neuron has one axon and one dendrite extending directly from the cell body.

  1. unipolar
  2. bipolar
  3. multipolar
  4. pseudounipolar


Glia that provide myelin for neurons in the brain are called ________.

  1. Schwann cells
  2. oligodendrocytes
  3. microglia
  4. astrocytes



Free Response

How are neurons similar to other cells? How are they unique?

Neurons contain organelles common to all cells, such as a nucleus and mitochondria. They are unique because they contain dendrites, which can receive signals from other neurons, and axons that can send these signals to other cells.

Multiple sclerosis causes demyelination of axons in the brain and spinal cord. Why is this problematic?

Myelin provides insulation for signals traveling along axons. Without myelin, signal transmission can slow down and degrade over time. This would slow down neuronal communication across the nervous system and affect all downstream functions.


35.2: How Neurons Communicate

All functions performed by the nervous system—from a simple motor reflex to more advanced functions like making a memory or a decision—require neurons to communicate with one another. While humans use words and body language to communicate, neurons use electrical and chemical signals. Just like a person in a committee, one neuron usually receives and synthesizes messages from multiple other neurons before “making the decision” to send the message on to other neurons.


Review Questions

For a neuron to fire an action potential, its membrane must reach ________.

  1. hyperpolarization
  2. the threshold of excitation
  3. the refractory period
  4. inhibitory postsynaptic potential


After an action potential, the opening of additional voltage-gated ________ channels and the inactivation of sodium channels, cause the membrane to return to its resting membrane potential.

  1. sodium
  2. potassium
  3. calcium
  4. chloride


What is the term for protein channels that connect two neurons at an electrical synapse?

  1. synaptic vesicles
  2. voltage-gated ion channels
  3. gap junction protein
  4. sodium-potassium exchange pumps

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