PLEASE CHOOSE THE BEST CHOICES
How do most invertebrates move?
- Invertebrates use simple circular and longitudinal muscles, in combination with a fluid-filled internal chamber that acts as a hydraulic skeleton.
- Because they lack true muscles, invertebrates rely entirely on their nervous system and hydraulic skeleton for movement.
- Invertebrates rely entirely on smooth muscle for movement.
- Most invertebrates are sessile, and move only in response to changes in air or water currents.
- Invertebrates use striated muscles anchored to a calcified internal skeleton via tendons and ligaments to generate force via a lever system.
Fish build their locomotor muscle from which two types of muscle fibers?
- Type IIb and type IIx muscle fibers
- Red and white muscle fibers
- Myotome and myosepta muscle fibers
- Striated muscle and smooth muscle fibers
- Skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle
All of the muscles in an organism that are responsible for a type of movement (e.g., flight) are grouped together into a:
- Flexor muscle group.
- Motor unit.
- Recruited muscle group.
- locomotor module
Muscles that remains active for long periods of time primarily rely on _______ for energy production.
- mitochondrial aerobic metabolism
- glycolytic metabolism
- phosphocreatine store
- glycolysis and phosphocreatine stores
- cytoplasmic ATP reserves
Which of the following is an advantage of using glycolysis for powering ATP production in muscles?
- Ability to use a diversity of fuel sources.
- Higher ATP yield.
- More rapid production of ATP
- More efficient use of stored food reserves.
- Ability to sustain muscle contractions for long periods of time.
The levels of metabolic fuels in the blood are determined by:
- Circulating levels of lepton hormone.
- The balance of actions of many different hormones, such as insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, and glucocorticoids.
- circulating levels of mitochondrial enzymes
- Levels of ADP in muscle tissue.
- Primarily by insulin, with other hormones playing insignificant roles.
All of the following strategies affect oxygen delivery to muscle except for:
- Capillary density.
- Vascular tone.
- Oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.
- Creatinine kinase.
- Myoglobin concentration.
The skeletal system of insects consists of:
- A calcium phosphate endoskeleton with a collagen matrix.
- A polysaccharide exoskeleton consisting of chitin.
- A hydrostatic skeleton surrounded by muscle layers.
- A cartilaginous endoskeleton with a chondroitin-rich matrix.
- A hard, mineralized exoskeleton, often consisting of two halves that enclose the animal.
The vertebrate bony skeleton is produced by specialized bone-depositing cells known as:
A type I lever has a large mechanical advantage. What does this mean?
- A minimal amount of force applied to the lever can be used to lift a large weight.
- The ratio of the lengths of the weight arm (LWA) to the force arm (LFA) is very high.
- A modest amount of force can be used to move the mobile end of the lever quickly through a large distance.
- A large amount of force applied to the lever is required in order to lift a small amount of weight.
- They act like a wheelbarrow, where the weight is located between the force and the fulcrum.
The power of a muscle contraction is maximal when:
- The muscle’s velocity of shortening is greatest.
- The muscle’s force of contraction is greatest.
- The product of force generation and the velocity of shortening (F x V) is highest.
- The product of force generation and the length of the muscle (F x L) is maximized.
- The muscle’s contraction velocity is 75% of maximum.
What is a work loop?
- A data plot that is generated when the force generation and length of a muscle are monitored during a contraction and relaxation cycle.
- A data plot that is generated when the force generation and velocity of shortening are monitored during the relaxation phase of a muscle contraction.
- A type of lever that has a large mechanical advantage.
- The sequence of contractions from agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups.
What primary adaptation do sharks and zooplankton use to increase their buoyancy?
- Lipid stores.
- Carbohydrate stores.
- Swim bladders.
- A waxy epidermis.
- Protein stores.
Which of the following statements about swim bladders is false?
- The swim bladder is derived from an outgrowth of the gastrointestinal tract that appears early in fish development.
- Fish inflate their swim bladder with the gas gland, a region of the swim bladder that causes hemoglobin to release oxygen.
- Swim bladders are most useful for fish that remain within a narrow range of depths.
- All fish have a swim bladder.
- Swim bladders most likely evolved from primitive lungs.
The Reynolds number:
- Enables researchers to predict how much force a muscle can generate, depending on its fiber-type composition.
- Enables researchers to predict such things as how easily an object can glide through a fluid or when movement through a fluid is likely to be turbulent.
- Is the ratio of the lengths of the weight arm (LWA) to the force arm (LFA) in a lever?
- Provides an estimate of how much force is required to generate lift in a flying animal.
- Calculates the work being done by a group of muscles.
All of the following adaptations helped animals make the transition to a terrestrial life EXCEPT:
- A more flexible, cartilaginous skeleton.
- A stronger musculature.
- Changes in postural muscles.
- Stronger bones.
- Evolution of an appendicular skeleton.
Of the following, all are attributes that distinguish migrations from other types of excursions that animals undertake, except:
- Motions that are persistent and of long duration.
- Movement more in a linear direction, without frequent turning.
- Particular behaviors that precede or follow the migration.
- Very responsive to environmental stimuli, such as the sudden availability of a food source.
- Reorganization of energy metabolism.
Which of the following statements about terrestrial animals is false?
- The most successful group of terrestrial invertebrates is the arthropods, primarily arachnids (e.g., spiders), myriapods (e.g., centipedes), and hexapods (e.g., insects).
- There are some species of flightless birds that evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators.
- An animal’s ability to jump a certain distance is directly proportional to its size. For example, even if two animals have a similar geometry, a larger animal will be able to lift its center of gravity farther than a smaller animal.
- Fleas are exceptional jumpers because they use a spring mechanism to trigger leg movement, which is indirectly powered by muscle contraction.
- Amphibians undergo metamorphosis that remodels their body structure for terrestrial life.
The cost of transport (COT):
- Is measured by dividing the respiratory quotient by the velocity of movement.
- Takes into account the animal’s resting metabolic rate as well as the peak power it can generate.
- Is the same for swimming, flying, and running animals of similar body weight and proportions?
- Is roughly the same for a horse moving at the optimal velocity for its gait, regardless of whether it is walking, trotting, or running.
- Is proportionally greater (per kg body weight) for large animals than for small animals.
- Is expressed in units of Joules.
- Can be determined by measuring metabolic oxygen consumption in fast-moving animals.
- Allows researchers to ascertain metabolic fuel selection.
- Is similar for different animals (fish, birds, mammals), as long as they weigh the same.
- Is a good representation of the metabolic costs of work?