LOCOMOTION IN MAMMALS, FISH, INSECTS AND BIRDS

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How do most invertebrates move?

  1. Invertebrates use simple circular and longitudinal muscles, in combination with a fluid-filled internal chamber that acts as a hydraulic skeleton.
  2. Because they lack true muscles, invertebrates rely entirely on their nervous system and hydraulic skeleton for movement.
  3. Invertebrates rely entirely on smooth muscle for movement.
  4. Most invertebrates are sessile, and move only in response to changes in air or water currents.
  5. Invertebrates use striated muscles anchored to a calcified internal skeleton via tendons and ligaments to generate force via a lever system.

Fish build their locomotor muscle from which two types of muscle fibers?

  1. Type IIb and type IIx muscle fibers
  2. Red and white muscle fibers
  3. Myotome and myosepta muscle fibers
  4. Striated muscle and smooth muscle fibers
  5. Skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle

All of the muscles in an organism that are responsible for a type of movement (e.g., flight) are grouped together into a:

  1. Flexor muscle group.
  2. Motor unit.
  3. Recruited muscle group.
  4. locomotor module

Muscles that remains active for long periods of time primarily rely on _______ for energy production.

  1. mitochondrial aerobic metabolism
  2. glycolytic metabolism
  3. phosphocreatine store
  4. glycolysis and phosphocreatine stores
  5. cytoplasmic ATP reserves

Which of the following is an advantage of using glycolysis for powering ATP production in muscles?

  1. Ability to use a diversity of fuel sources.
  2. Higher ATP yield.
  3. More rapid production of ATP
  4. More efficient use of stored food reserves.
  5. Ability to sustain muscle contractions for long periods of time.

The levels of metabolic fuels in the blood are determined by:

  1. Circulating levels of lepton hormone.
  2. The balance of actions of many different hormones, such as insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, and glucocorticoids.
  3. circulating levels of mitochondrial enzymes
  4. Levels of ADP in muscle tissue.
  5. Primarily by insulin, with other hormones playing insignificant roles.

All of the following strategies affect oxygen delivery to muscle except for:

  1. Capillary density.
  2. Vascular tone.
  3. Oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.
  4. Creatinine kinase.
  5. Myoglobin concentration.

The skeletal system of insects consists of:

  1. A calcium phosphate endoskeleton with a collagen matrix.
  2. A polysaccharide exoskeleton consisting of chitin.
  3. A hydrostatic skeleton surrounded by muscle layers.
  4. A cartilaginous endoskeleton with a chondroitin-rich matrix.
  5. A hard, mineralized exoskeleton, often consisting of two halves that enclose the animal.

The vertebrate bony skeleton is produced by specialized bone-depositing cells known as:

A type I lever has a large mechanical advantage. What does this mean?

  1. A minimal amount of force applied to the lever can be used to lift a large weight.
  2. The ratio of the lengths of the weight arm (LWA) to the force arm (LFA) is very high.
  3. A modest amount of force can be used to move the mobile end of the lever quickly through a large distance.
  4. A large amount of force applied to the lever is required in order to lift a small amount of weight.
  5. They act like a wheelbarrow, where the weight is located between the force and the fulcrum.

The power of a muscle contraction is maximal when:

  1. The muscle’s velocity of shortening is greatest.
  2. The muscle’s force of contraction is greatest.
  3. The product of force generation and the velocity of shortening (F x V) is highest.
  4. The product of force generation and the length of the muscle (F x L) is maximized.
  5. The muscle’s contraction velocity is 75% of maximum.

What is a work loop?

  1. A data plot that is generated when the force generation and length of a muscle are monitored during a contraction and relaxation cycle.
  2. A data plot that is generated when the force generation and velocity of shortening are monitored during the relaxation phase of a muscle contraction.
  3. A type of lever that has a large mechanical advantage.
  4. The sequence of contractions from agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups.

What primary adaptation do sharks and zooplankton use to increase their buoyancy?

  1. Lipid stores.
  2. Carbohydrate stores.
  3. Swim bladders.
  4. A waxy epidermis.
  5. Protein stores.

Which of the following statements about swim bladders is false?

  1. The swim bladder is derived from an outgrowth of the gastrointestinal tract that appears early in fish development.
  2. Fish inflate their swim bladder with the gas gland, a region of the swim bladder that causes hemoglobin to release oxygen.
  3. Swim bladders are most useful for fish that remain within a narrow range of depths.
  4. All fish have a swim bladder.
  5. Swim bladders most likely evolved from primitive lungs.

The Reynolds number:

  1. Enables researchers to predict how much force a muscle can generate, depending on its fiber-type composition.
  2. Enables researchers to predict such things as how easily an object can glide through a fluid or when movement through a fluid is likely to be turbulent.
  3. Is the ratio of the lengths of the weight arm (LWA) to the force arm (LFA) in a lever?
  4. Provides an estimate of how much force is required to generate lift in a flying animal.
  5. Calculates the work being done by a group of muscles.

All of the following adaptations helped animals make the transition to a terrestrial life EXCEPT:

  1. A more flexible, cartilaginous skeleton.
  2. A stronger musculature.
  3. Changes in postural muscles.
  4. Stronger bones.
  5. Evolution of an appendicular skeleton.

Of the following, all are attributes that distinguish migrations from other types of excursions that animals undertake, except:

  1. Motions that are persistent and of long duration.
  2. Movement more in a linear direction, without frequent turning.
  3. Particular behaviors that precede or follow the migration.
  4. Very responsive to environmental stimuli, such as the sudden availability of a food source.
  5. Reorganization of energy metabolism.

Which of the following statements about terrestrial animals is false?

  1. The most successful group of terrestrial invertebrates is the arthropods, primarily arachnids (e.g., spiders), myriapods (e.g., centipedes), and hexapods (e.g., insects).
  2. There are some species of flightless birds that evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators.
  3. An animal’s ability to jump a certain distance is directly proportional to its size. For example, even if two animals have a similar geometry, a larger animal will be able to lift its center of gravity farther than a smaller animal.
  4. Fleas are exceptional jumpers because they use a spring mechanism to trigger leg movement, which is indirectly powered by muscle contraction.
  5. Amphibians undergo metamorphosis that remodels their body structure for terrestrial life.

The cost of transport (COT):

  1. Is measured by dividing the respiratory quotient by the velocity of movement.
  2. Takes into account the animal’s resting metabolic rate as well as the peak power it can generate.
  3. Is the same for swimming, flying, and running animals of similar body weight and proportions?
  4. Is roughly the same for a horse moving at the optimal velocity for its gait, regardless of whether it is walking, trotting, or running.
  5. Is proportionally greater (per kg body weight) for large animals than for small animals.

ATP turnover:

  1. Is expressed in units of Joules.
  2. Can be determined by measuring metabolic oxygen consumption in fast-moving animals.
  3. Allows researchers to ascertain metabolic fuel selection.
  4. Is similar for different animals (fish, birds, mammals), as long as they weigh the same.
  5. Is a good representation of the metabolic costs of work?

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