Matter is anything that occupies space and has got weight.
In what state is matter found?
There are three states of matter
What are the differences between the three states of matter?
All matter is mode small particles.
Arrangement of particles in solids very close and regular.
In liquids the particle are further apart although they are still regular and in gases the particles are very far from one another and with no particular arrangement.
Movement of particles
In solids particles can only vibrate about a position. In liquids particles can move from one position to another that is they can flow or pour and in gases the particles move very far. This is because in solids there are strong forces of attraction, in liquids the particles are not as strongly held together as in solids and in gases the forces of attraction are very weak.
Therefore, solids have got a regular shape and a definite volume although liquids have a definite volume the liquid takes on shape of the container.
And gases have neither definite volume nor shape.
EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THAT PARTICLES IN A SOLID DON’T MOVE FROM ONE POSITION TO ANOTHER
In the experiment the apparatus is set up as follows;-
If it is left even after a week the two substances will remain in to layers
Do particles in liquids move.
Experiment is set up as follows:
A glass jug was filled with water and a crystal of potassium permanganate was dropped in.
After a day or two the purple color of the potassium permanganate is evenly distributed in the gas jar of water.
Do particles in gases move?
A drop of bromine was placed at the bottom of the gas jar, a gas jar slides was places on top of gas jar
The gas jar with bromine was quickly filled with a brown gas
Bromine is brown liquid which vaporizes easily at room temperature. The gaseous particles move very fast and quickly the brown color of bromine is seen to fill the gas jar.
When a gas changes to liquid is called condensation
Potassium permanganate dissolves in water to form a purple solution, therefore, the purple color in the gas jar in all the water shows the presence of potassium permanganate particle are knocked by the moving water particles.
The solids didn’t mix because solid particles don’t move from one position to another
Particles of gases have a lot of energy therefore they can move for from one another. Liquid particles have less energy therefore they don’t move far but they have more energy than solids.
Gases are easily compressed solids and liquids are not easy to compress.
Using simple diagrams only show how particles (0) are arranged in solids liquid sand gases.
Arrange of particles in;-
KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
All matter is made up of tiny moving particles are invisible to the naked eye. The particles are moving all the time. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move.
Small particles move faster than larger than larger or heavier ones.
What happens when substances are heated?
Investigating the effect of heat on substances
|Name of substances||What does the sub look like before heating||What happens during heating||What does it look life after|
|Candle wax||It look creamish||It turns to a colorless liquid||Form white solid|
|Iodine||It is a grey solid||It forms purple gas||Forms grey solid|
|Potassium permanganate||It is a dark purple colorIt is shining crystal||It gives a grackle sound gives off a gas which re-lights a flowing slit||The residue of purple form a grey solution in waterN.B heating forms a purple color|
It is colourless
|Water||-Forms a colorless vapor-The boiling point of water depend on altitude and atmospheric pressure|
From the experiment it is observed that when some solids are heated
- They may melt
- From one substances
However, some solids remain uncharged when heated
Boiling point of any liquid
The boiling point of a liquid depends on the atmospheric pressure with in turn depends on altitude.
Define boiling point
Boiling point of liquid is the temperate of which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the surrounding or external pressure.
Finding the boiling point of a liquid which burns
The temperature of ethanol kept rising until it remained at 74.5oc
Therefore the boiling point of ethanol was 74.5oc. Pure ethanol boils at 78oc at sea level. Therefore when finding the boiling point of a liquid which burns doesn’t heat it directly on a flame use a water bath.
Supposing the inflammable liquid had a higher boiling point than that water, how is it heated?
In that case oil or constructed sulphiric acid is used instead of water.