This is an introduction to Chemistry in Secondary education. It gives the basic elements that are essential in understanding the subject in order to connect with different aspects of the subject.


Chemistry is the study of matter. Its composition, (what it is made of), and its properties.

By doing practical

For every experiment done there is:

  1. AIM:

Why is the experiment done?

  1. METHOD:

How is the experiment done?


What happens when the experiment is done?




  • Don’t enter the lab unless there is somebody who is more responsible e.g the teacher or a lab technician.
  • Walk into the laboratory in an orderly manner
  • Don’t do any experiment until you have been given dear instructions.
  • Most of the apparatus used is glassware therefore it must be handling with care. For example reagent bottles should not be held by the neck and apparatus should not be placed at the edge of the table.
  • Don’t handle hot apparatus with your bare hands
  • Any boiling or test tube where chemicals are being heating must not be pointed at anybody
  • Do not taste anything unless the teacher tells you it’s safe and do not bring any eats or drinks to the lab.
  • If you have to taste anything as instructed, spit it into the sink then rinse your mouth
  • Any breakage or accident must be reported immediately.
  • Apparatus must be cleaned and cleared away


chemistry introduction


chemistry introduction1


chemistry introduction2

chemistry introduction3


the bursen bunner


luminous flame


non-luminous flame

What is a flame?

A flame is burning gases that give out heat and light.

What does luminous mean?

Luminous means giving out light on its own

What color is a luminous flame?

A luminous flame is yellow

How many zones does a;-

Luminous flame has.

It has four zones

non-luminous flame have

It has three zones

Luminous Non-luminous
It produces soot The flame does not produce soot
The flame is unsteady The flame is steady
The flame contains four zones The flame contains three zones
The flame is not very hot The flame is much hotter than luminous one
The flame is easily visible The flame is not visible
The flame is quiet The flame is noisy
The flame can “burn back” The flame cannot “burn back”

wire goose



In the 3rd experiment the goose wire was held above the blue purple zone. The part of the wire goose above the flame is not hot.

 What wrong with the middle of the flame?

It contains un burnt gas

Our 4thexperiment is to show that the middle of the flame contains un burnt gas.

A glass tube was held with one end of it in the middle of the flame and then the other end was lit and there was a small blue flame.  The un burnt gas goes up through the glass tube and it is burnt at the end of the tubes.



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